The United Nations and the
Leninist Concept of an International Organisation.
Aggression and Cold War Policy. For Peace and International Cooperation.
The United Nations and the
Turn Toward International Detente.
For Curbing the Arms Race
and Achieving Disarmament.
For the Elimination of Seals
of War and for the Non-Use of Force in International Relations.
For the Complete Elimination
of Colonialism and Racism, in Support of the Struggle of Liberated Countries
for Stronger National Sovereignty and Economic Independence.
Today, sixty years after the Great October Socialist Revolution, Soviet foreign policy is illumined by the unfading ideas of Lenin, as it has been throughout the Soviet state's history.
Guided by these ideas, the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which was held in Moscow in February 1976, charted the main directions of the Soviet Union's further struggle for peace and international cooperation, for freedom and independence of nations. "The foreign policy of the Land of Soviets enjoys the respect and support of many millions of people all over the world ", declared Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, addressing the Congress. "And we shall continue this policy with redoubled energy, working to bridle the forces of war and aggression, to consolidate world peace and assure the peoples' right to freedom, independence and social progress."
Peace, progress of humanity and socialism are inseparable. The abolition of war and establishment of a stable and just peace is one of the most important goals of socialism. Peace is an essential condition for the successful building of socialism and communism. Socialism has no need of war to prove its historical superiority over capitalism: the invincibility of socialism as a socio-economic formation stems from the objective laws of society's development and is borne out by the entire course of history in the last century. Accordingly the socialist class nature of Soviet foreign policy guarantees that this policy is one of peace and friendship among nations.
In the first foreign-policy act of the Soviet state, the Decree on Peace, Lenin lucidly outlined the fundamental principles of Soviet foreign policy. That historic document, adopted on November 8, 1917 by the Second All-Russia Congress of Soviets, declared the Soviet government's determination "to conclude peace successfully, and at the same time emancipate the labouring and exploited masses of our population from all forms of slavery and all forms of exploitation." 1
The Soviet government thereby expressed itself in favour of peaceful coexistence with states belonging to a different sociopolitical system and, simultaneously, in support of efforts by peoples to secure their national and social emancipation. To work for a lasting, just and democratic peace between peoples, to firmly establish in international relations the principles of peaceful coexistence and cooperation among states with differing social systems, to resolutely rebuff aggressive and militaristic forces, and all encroachments by imperialism upon the inalienable rights of the peoples, upon their free and independent development-all these Lenin's behests constitute the unchanging and principled class basis of Soviet foreign policy.
In the jubilee year of the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the drawing up of a new Constitution of the USSR has been completed. For the first time in the Soviet state's history, the basic principles of the country's foreign policy have been set forth in its Fundamental Law. Describing their essence, Leonid Brezhnev said: "The unflagging efforts of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government are aimed at consolidating peace, reducing the risk of a new world war, curbing the arms race and enhancing the positions of socialism and of all forces seeking to ensure freedom of nations, social progress and mutually beneficial cooperation between all states."
The Leninist fundamental foreign-policy principles also underlie the Soviet Union's strategic line with respect to the United Nations, the most representative international political forum, with a membership of 147 countries. The UN holds an important place in the system of international relations first and foremost as an organisation designed to promote and strengthen international peace and security, and to serve as an instrument of equitable cooperation between sovereign and independent states. This principal political task of the United Nations, as defined in its Charter, is fully in keeping with the peaceful foreign-policy course of the Soviet Union and of all the fraternal socialist countries. The Soviet Union has always held that the United Nations should steadily enhance its role in international affairs and that its political mechanism should effectively serve the implementation of the purposes and principles of the Charter and the strengthening of international security.
The great achievements of the Soviet Union in building a communist society, the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress aimed at a new strong upsurge of all branches of the national economy and raising of the material and cultural standards of the Soviet people, growing solidarity and activity of the forces of world socialism and their strengthening alliance with all progressive and peace-loving forces-all these factors underlie the deepening of international detente and the restructuring of international relations on the basis of the principles of peaceful coexistence. A key factor in the dynamic foreign policy conducted by the Soviet Union is the radical shift in favour of socialism in the correlation of forces in the international arena, which greatly promotes the consolidation and deepening of detente and its extension to all areas of the world.
In its efforts to consolidate and give concrete shape to detente, the Soviet Union seeks to make full use of the United Nations potentialities. The Soviet Union believes it necessary to focus the attention of the United Nations on the following paramount directions in world politics: the further assertion of the principles of peaceful coexistence in the relations between nations and their embodiment in concrete forms of mutually advantageous cooperation; the solution of pressing problems of halting the arms race and achieving disarmament; the settlement of international conflicts and the stamping out of smouldering embers of war; the organised rebuff to all acts of aggression and international arbitrariness; the elimination of all vestiges of the system of colonial oppression, infringement of the equality and independence of peoples, and all centres of colonialism and racialism as well as of all manifestations of inequality, diktat and exploitation in international economic relations. These tasks stem directly from the provisions of the UN Charter and this is what the Soviet Union is striving for in pursuing its strategic line with respect to the United Nations.
The UN is a body of world politics, an inalienable element of the fabric of modern international relations. It is a unique forum for the consideration of major problems of peace and security and for the examination of urgent questions of the social and economic development of the world's peoples, and at the same time an arena for the struggle of ideas.
The position and concrete actions of the United Nations reflect a certain correlation of forces among the states and the predominant tendency in international affairs. At the present stage, when, through the joint efforts of the socialist states and of all the peace forces, a turn has been brought about from cold war to international detente and the peaceful cooperation of states, possibilities are emerging to considerably enhance the effectiveness of the UN. These possibilities are reinforced by major shifts in the alignment of forces within the UN which reflect the fundamental changes in the correlation of forces in the world arena as a whole. In recent years, the forces of peace and progress inflicted several defeats on imperialism. As a result, important positive changes have taken place in international affairs. A whole system of treaties and agreements has come into being, all of which are laying the foundations for developing relations between states with differing social systems on the principles of peaceful coexistence. The process of deepening and giving concrete form to detente in Europe on the basis of the understandings reached in Helsinki is making headway. An important contribution to the strengthening of peace was the historic victory of the Vietnamese people and the collapse of the reactionary regimes in Laos and Cambodia. The idea of collective security in Asia is steadily gaining momentum. Steps are being taken to curb the arms race, notably in the field of nuclear missiles. All this made it possible to push back the danger of a new nuclear war and to make international detente the leading tendency in the world's developments.
At the same time the enemies of detente and peaceful cooperation among nations have not laid down their arms. They are continuing-even intensifying-the arms race. They are impeding the peaceful settlement of conflicts and seeking to exploit the tensions still existing in several areas of the world in their selfish, imperialist interests. They are pursuing a policy of neocolonialism and repressions toward the people's liberation movements and they are resorting again and again to ideological sabotage and methods of psychological warfare. An acute world-wide class struggle is continuing, and much has still to be done to finally bridle the forces of reaction and aggression, to weaken and ultimately to remove the danger of a new world war, to establish a lasting and just peace on the globe. The United Nations has its role to play in the achievement of this all-important objective.
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